Mitochondria are crucial organelles that provide energy via oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotic cells and also have critical roles in growth, division, and the cell cycle, as well as the rapid adaptation required to meet the metabolic needs of the cell. Mitochondrial processes are highly dynamic; fusion and fission can vary with cell type, cellular context, and stress levels. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that an imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics leads to death in numerous types of human cancer cells. Therefore, modulating mitochondrial dynamics could be a therapeutic target. In this review, we provide an overview of the protein interaction networks involved in mitochondrial dynamics as effective and feasible drug targets and discuss the related potential therapeutic strategies for cancer.